Remembering the Kassel Mission – September 27, 1944

Interview and photo by Bill Hall for South Coast Today.
Interview and photo by Bill Hall for South Coast Today.

Newspaper Interview – 6/15/1994
By BILL HALL – Staff writer, South Coast Today


RAY BENCE served with the Air Force during World War II and completed 18 missions before being shot down over Germany, becoming a prisoner of war and being involved in a 600-mile forced march. (Bill Hall photo)

For individuals who may not have known much about World War II and watched the recent D-Day ceremonies, they might have concluded that the invasion ended the war. In fact, the war in Europe lasted 11 more grueling months with heavy losses on all sides.

Among those who saw all of this action following the invasion was current Westport resident Raymond Bence who flew 19 missions in a B24 against heavily fortified areas in France and Germany. Two months after his first mission his plane was shot down over Germany and he became a prisoner of war prior to being freed by the Russians at the close of the conflict.

This Sept. 27 will mark the 50th anniversary of his capture which came on the 19th mission over Bad Hersfeld.

He had come to the base of the 2nd Bomber Division of the 8th Air Force in Norwich, England by way of Westover Air Force Base. The then Sgt. Bence was in the nose turret of the 10 member B-24 when he flew his last mission on Sept. 27 heading for the Henschel plant in Kassel, Germany.

At that time, each crew flew 35 missions before it was allowed to go back home. This was his nineteenth mission and so far, all he had seen was flak and plenty of it but his first look at German fighter planes would be his last from the air.

“We had strayed off course by about 20 or 30 miles, ” said Mr. Bence. “We had dropped our bornb load off in some fields. I was later told we hit one cow.”
While they were returning, a wave of about 150 fighter planes including three groups of Messerschmitt 109’s attacked the 35 Liberators and within five to seven minutes the 2nd Bomb division had suffered its worse loss of the war.

“Only four planes got back to home base and three of them were so heavily damaged they could not fly again,” Mr. Bence said.

“It was the first time I had seen fighter planes,” he recalled, “up to that point we had seen a lot of flak and the German gunners were quite good. But up to that point we had never been in any real trouble.”

His plane was at about 20,000 feet when it was hit and within a few minutes, Mr. Bence was pulled from the turret by crew member Charlie McCann and they parachuted out.

“It was the first time I had parachuted,” he said. “At one point, I saw a German fighter coming at me. He just went right by. In the distance, I could see our plane go down.”

“There was light cloud cover below and once I went through that, I saw four or five ships (planes) burning on the ground,” he said. “I was heading to a field when a burst of wind took me into a tree. Some civilians rescued me from the tree and a couple of hunters came by and held me for the soldiers.”

Earlier in the war, bomber crews carried sidearms, however the military found that many of the airmen were being killed because they had guns. Because they were bombing in enemy territory, it was felt that if they were shot down, there was no use in trying to fight their way out of a jam and instead would submit to capture.

The crew members were spread out in the countryside and when Mr. Bence was captured, he was first taken for interrogation in Frankfurt where he was a cell mate of a British paratrooper captured in Arnheim.

“I have always wondered whether he was really a British paratrooper or not,” he said, noting that the Germans had been placing spies from various countries and mixed them with the military.

From Frankfurt, he was taken for a short time to another camp before being sent on to Pomerania in Poland where he was held from Oct. 7 of 1944 to Feb. 6 of 1945.
The camp had about 10,000 prisoners and except for the bad food, the prisoners were treated relatively well.

“Because we were enlisted men and officers we did not have to work,” Mr. Bcnce said, noting that they did regular cleaning but were not put into the labor camps. He added that the Red Cross provided parcels for the prisoners.

Many of the guards were older Germans. One who spoke very good English was found to be a man who had been a sewing machine salesman in Chicago prior to the war.

Two other soldiers were known as the “coal dust twins” because they provided coal to heat the barracks.

“There were a lot of roll calls, but the Germans could not count straight,” he said.

Meanwhile, the Adjutant had sent a message to Mr. Bence’s parents, Raymond and Bertha who lived in East Braintree. The message read in part “the Secretary of War desires me to express his deep regret that your son, Staff Sergeant Raymond 1. Bence, Jr., has been reported missing in action since 27 September over Germany.

“One of the first things you do once you are in a prisoner of war camp is try to find someone who was in your unit or from your Hometown,” Mr. Bence said. “I found out that a man from Braintree was in the hospital. He had been attacked by civilians when he landed and they broke both his legs and left him for dead. The German soldiers had to rescue him.

“Anyway, it turned out that he had a friend who lived across the street from my house Mr. Bence added. “He was about to be repatriated and so I had to get to him to give word to my parents that I was alright.”

“I sort of made a deal and went to the hospital and gave him the word. He got back to the states and gave the message that I was alright to my parents,” Mr. Bence added, noting they were told prior to Christmas of 1944.

On Feb. 6, the men in the camp were going to be moved because the Russian army had advanced to the south of the Stalag Luft IV camp in Poland. The soldiers were put on a forced march that would continue for the next two months and cover over 600 miles.

“We ended up on the first night sleeping in a field without any cover and having a sleet and snow storm,” he said.

Part way into the march, Mr. Bence took ill and that illness plagued him for the remainder of the march. The group was marched in areas along the Baltic Sea then south to an area beyond Berlin and then back to the east before finishing out in Annaburg.

“We were about seven miles northeast of Targau where the Russian and American soldiers first met,” Mr. Bcnce recalled. “By May 3, the Russians came to Annaburg and we were freed.”

Mr. Bence has only been on three flights over the last 50 years. “I don’t like to fly anymore,” said Mr. Bence. “The only three times I have been in a plane were all family emergencies.” Mr. Bence is planning at least one more plane ride later when he visits Germany for the first time since the war.

Note: My thanks to the Bill Hall and the South Coast Today for allowing me to repost this story.

48 Years Later

Ray Bence
Ray in the waist of a B-24 at a Collings Foundation air show about 1992. The patch on his cap is for the American Ex-Prisoners of War Organization.

During World War II, Staff Sergeant Raymond Everett Bence, Jr. served on a B-24 Liberator as the the nose-gunner on Lt. Fromm’s crew, 703rd Squadron, 445th BG. On September 27, 1944, during mission 169 for the Bomb Group, his plane and 24 others were shot down over Germany in what came to be known as “The Kassel Mission“. After being shot down he was interned as a POW in Stalag Luft 4 in northwest Poland and later survived “The Black March” in the winter of 1945. He was one of youngest men in the squadron and was nick-named “The Kid”.

He had never talked about his war experiences to me when I was growing up. That changed when he ordered a copy of The Kassel Mission Report when it came out in 1989. That opened the floodgates. His words at the time “Now they will believe me”. We were planning a trip to Germany for the 50th anniversary memorial at the time of his death on July 4, 1994.

In recent years I’ve sought out military records related to the 445th and the Kassel mission in the archives in Washington and London. My most recent find was the post-war testimony of an RAF pilot who was on the same forced march. He stated that he and a crew-mate managed to escape during the march. However, after 24 hours on their own they realized that conditions were so bad they actually rejoined the POW column because they knew they wouldn’t survive on their own.

Father and Son

William Green

Birth 25 December 1727 in Groton, Middlesex, Massachusetts, United States
Death 29 November 1809 in Brookline, Hillsborough, New Hampshire, United States

William Green

Birth 17 Jan 1755 in Pepperell, Middlesex, Massachusetts, United States
Death 1 May 1843 in Ashby, Middlesex, Massachusetts, United States

“And I further testify and say that I well know Capt. William Green now of Ashby, but who then lived at Pepperell and that he belonged to the same Company with myself, and served in the same Campaign in Col. Prescotts Regt. of which his father William Green who was wounded at Bunker hill was Adjutant. – Robinson Lakin”

Affidavit of William Green
NARA M804, Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land Warrant Application Files, William Green, pension #W19542, accessed 17-Jun-2015 at

William Green 1727-1809 gravestone

Carol Thomas

World War 2 Heavy Bomber Cold Weather Flight Suits


 WW2 Heavy Bomber Flight Suit  Raymond Everett Bence Jr. in flight suit
Heavy bomber cold weather flight suit on display at the Museum of World War 2 in Natick, MA. Raymond Everett Bence Jr., 445th Bomb Group, wearing his cold weather flight suit in 1944.

“The Museum of World War II is a research and educational institution
devoted to preserving and exhibiting the reality of World War II.
It is the most comprehensive collection of documents and artifacts
on display anywhere in the world, with over 7,000 artifacts on display;
more than 500,000 documents and photographs are in the research archives.”

Learn more online at


Hoyt History of Wentworth manuscript 01

Saturday’s word of the day was serendipity. I’d put off a research trip to Wentworth, New Hampshire for a week due to inertia. I’m looking into the background of the family of a Civil War soldier who was born there.

My first stop was the Webster Public Library in Wentworth, open from 9-12 on Saturdays.

1. I found several books published by a local historian Francis Muzzey that mentioned property owned by the soldier’s family in the early 1800s.

2. I noticed a stack of pamphlets in a dusty case that turned out to be a stack of of original town reports from 1863 through the 1890s with occasional references to his family. I only recognized them because I’d see a couple at the New Hampshire Historical Society the previous week (NHHS only had 3 years worth). I was able to photograph them all.

3. In another case I noticed a thick book with the title “The History of Wentworth, Vol 1 – Manuscript). Turns out it was Hoyt’s original hand-written 1857 history of the town. I own a transcript and was awed to be able to page through the original and photograph the pages relating to the soldier.

4. The library kicked me out when they closed at noon. I headed over to the Wentworth Historical Society, a small building about 1/2 mile away. As I arrived a gentleman was heading out the door on his way to lunch. He asked what I needed. I told him a bit about my research and he said he’d be back in about 10 minutes. At that point I asked if he might be Mr. Muzzey. He was surprised that I knew his name. When he returned we talked for 1 1/2 hours about the family. (The conversation did take a slight detour when he discovered I was related to Lizzie Borden). He’s going to do some research for me on where the various members of the family lived in town before and after the War. He also asked if I would give a presentation to their historical society when I finish my research!

Did I mention that Mr. Muzzey did the 1976 transcription of the Hoyt manuscript? The transcript that I have on my shelf at home.

5. Near the end our talk he pulled out a book he’d compiled of everyone buried in the town cemeteries, sorted by name. We found the soldier, his parents, and an infant brother listed in a cemetery up the street.

He then escorted me down to the cemetery and helped me locate the graves.


The serendipity? If I’d gone to Wentworth last week instead of NHHS:

I wouldn’t have recognized the stack on reports in the display case. The reports were not in the library’s local history section or the their catalog and the librarian at the desk did not know what they were. I only knew what they were because I’d gone to the NHHS and seen one there.

I wouldn’t have met Mr. Muzzey. He says he doesn’t usually go to the historical society on Saturdays because nobody ever drops by. He was only there that one day this summer because they were short handed.

My thanks to the Webster Library for allowing me to examine and photograph the town reports and portions of the manuscript.